Toronto (City) v Ontario (Attorney General), 2021 SCC 34

In October 2021, the Supreme Court of Canada issued its decision in Toronto (City) v Ontario (Attorney General), a case challenging Ontario legislation that reduced the size of Toronto City Council from 47 to 25 wards during an ongoing municipal election. In a 5-4 decision, a majority of the court rejected the challenge, which was brought on the basis of s 2(b) of the Charter – freedom of expression – and the unwritten constitutional principle of democracy. The case raises a number of important constitutional issues, including questions of constitutional interpretation, positive rights, and the status of unwritten constitutional principles.